Acne: Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.It is characterised by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples oily skin, and possible scarring. 

Apocrine glands develop in areas abundant in hair follicles, such as your armpits and groin, and they empty into the hair follicle just before it opens onto the skin surface. When your body temperature rises, your eccrine glands secrete fluid onto the surface of your skin, where it cools your body as it evaporates

Adaptogen: (in herbal medicine) a natural substance considered to help the body adapt to stress

Ayurveda: the traditional Hindu system of medicine (incorporated in Atharva Veda, the last of the four Vedas), which is based on the idea of balance in bodily systems and uses diet, herbal treatment, and yogic breathing.

AHA (alpha hydroxy acid, such as lactic or glycolic acids) are water soluble acids and recommended for normal to dry, sun-damaged skin. 


Bi-Phase: A cosmetic product is considered to be 'bi-phase' if its normal state is in two separate phases that are not blended together. In cosmetics, this usually means a distinct water phase and a distinct oil phase

BB cream: stands for blemish balm, blemish base and in Western markets, beauty balm.Compared to a tinted cream which would be just a cream with a very light tint, the BB Cream has both the perfection power of a foundation and the moisturising power of a skincare product. On top of that, it also provides a sunblock. Initially it has been invented in Germany.

Bronzers: Some lotions have a bronzing effect to them. There are three different types of bronzers; cosmetic, natural and DHA. DHA (dihydroxyacetone) is a higher level of bronzer that stays on the skin for about 4–5 days depending on how much one exfoliates. Natural bronzers that are made from plant extracts and stay on the skin for about 3–4 days. 

Biotechnology:  the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.

BHA (beta hydroxy acid, which is salicylic acid) are oil soluble acids and preferred for normal to oily, clogged and /or enlarged pores, and can clear pores deeply even from whiteheads. 


Cleansers: Cleansers are used to clean the skin and come in many different forms. Different types of natural cleansers include oil cleansers, cream cleansers, foaming cleansers, gel cleansers and bi-phase cleansers.

Collagen: A tough fibre that envelopes the cells in the dermis.

CC Cream: It is used by some brands to mean Color Control cream, or Color Correcting cream,CC cream has all the benefits of a BB cream but with the specific feature of homogenising the coloration of the skin, by correcting the complexion concerns such as redness or dullness.

Couperose: Couperose complexion occurs because the capillary walls expand but do not quickly return to their normal size due to a loss of skin elasticity. This leads to visible capillaries and lingering redness on the skin. Sun exposure, extreme temperatures and lifestyle factors, like smoking and alcohol consumption, tend to worsen the condition.

Comedo is a clogged hair follicle (pore) in the skin by a combination of Keratin (skin debris) sebum and dirt. They can be open (blackhead) or closed by skin (whitehead), and occur with or without acne.


Dermatites: it is another form of Eczema. Contact dermatitis causes the skin to become red, blistered, dry and cracked.

Dermis: Situated beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.


Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin's outermost surface and it is the process for all facials during microdermabrasion or chemical peels.

Eczema:  atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is the most common form of eczema, a condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked. 

Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. 

Epidermis is the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.

Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. Almost all metabolic processes in the  cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.


Follicle: Skin cell (stem cell) which produces hair.

Fungus: is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. 



Hyper-pigmentation: is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in colour than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin colour, forms deposits in the skin.

Hypodermis: The deeper subcutaneous tissue is made of fat and connective tissue.

Hydrogenation: to treat with hydrogen. 




Keratin: A hard protein that makes up the dry, outer skin cells known as “squames”



Melanin: The pigment that gives human skin, hair, and eyes their colour. Dark-skinned people have more melanin in their skin than light-skinned people have. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes.

Maceration: The preparation of an extract through solvent extraction. In organic cosmetics, a maceration is generally made in oil. It is often also referred to as an infusion. 

Microdermabrasion: Microdermabrasion is a non-chemical, non-invasive procedure that uses a spray of microcrystals to remove the outermost layer of dry, dead skin cells and reveal younger, healthier-looking skin. Microdermabrasion also encourages the production of a new underlying layer of skin cells with higher levels of collagen and elastin, which further improves your skin’s appearance.


Natural: existing in or derived from nature; not made or caused by humankind.

Nature Identical: Due to the high cost or unavailability of natural flavour extracts, most commercial ones are "nature-identical", which means that they are the chemical equivalent of natural flavours, but chemically synthesised rather than being extracted from source materials.


Organic: pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon.


Pimple: zit or spot is a kind of comedo resulted from excess oil & dirt getting trapped in the pores.

PH: is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. A pH of 7 is neutral, any aqueous solution between 0-7 is acidic and any aqueous solution between 7-14 is alkaline. You cannot measure the pH of an anhydrous product.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, and are the building blocks of proteins. There are hundreds of different peptides, all of which are made from different combinations of amino acids

Psoriasis: An autoimmune condition that can cause a variety of skin rashes. 


Rosacea is a long-term skin condition that typically affects the face.It results in redness, pimples, swelling, and small and superficial dilated blood vessels. Often the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin are most involved.


Sebum: Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.

Squame: The dry outer skin cells that are being shed during desquamation. They are composed of keratin. 

Sunscreen, also known as sunblock and suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn, especially for fair-skinned individuals

Surfactant: act as detergents, emulsifiers, foaming agents and dispersants. Most natural foaming surfactants are soap nuts and Shikkaki nut.

Toner:  A toner is used to freshen up the skin and clean any residues of cleansers or masks. It is typically used between the cleansing and moisturising stage of your beauty regime.



Vellus Hair: The hair on the body. 

Vitiligo is a long term skin condition characterised by patches of the skin losing their pigment.The patches of skin affected become white and usually have sharp margins


Dermatology Online Journal. UC Davis

Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jan; 41(Database issue): D764–D772. Published online 2012 Nov 29. doi:  10.1093/nar/gks1049